Forests, People and Rights

A special report by Down to Earth
International Campaign for Ecological Justice in Indonesia

June 2002

Written by Liz Chidley, edited by Carolyn Marr
produced with the support of
Forest Peoples Programme
Rainforest Foundation


Part I: Forests, people and rights

Forest figures
Indonesia's disappearing forests
Indonesia's forest wealth
Adat and Indonesian forest law
The Ammatoa of South Sulawesi
Forest classifications
Forestry in the Suharto era
Bob Hasan: downfall of the timber king
The Reforestation Fund
The cost to forest peoples
Plantations in the Suharto period
Pulp and paper
Oil palm
Forest fires
The first signs of reform
A legacy of conflict
Footnotes to Part I

Part II: Forest reforms, post-Suharto

The political and economic context
The increased role of the IFIs
Reforms in the Habibie period
The 1999 Forestry Law
The CGI focus on forests
Reforms during the Wahid period
Regional autonomy and forests
Debt and the forestry industry
Reforms under Megawati
Continued pressure: plywood, pulp
Illegal logging
Oil palm
Forest fires
Fundamental reforms still needed
Footnotes to Part II

Part III: Community forest management: the way forward

What is community forest management?
Pressure for reform & the GoI response
The HKM programme
The Peoples' Forest Programmes
PHBM in Kuningan, West Java
The community forestry movement
CBFM in Wonosobo, Central Java
Agroforestry in Krui, Sumatra
The Behoa people of Central Sulawesi
Revitalising customary laws: Bentek
Logging to save the forests: Pejangki
Forests and communities, W. Kalimantan
Challenges to community management
Footnotes to Part III


With sincere thanks to: R. Agus Bakrie, M. Amin, Devi Anggrain, A. Baso, Buyung, Abdul Situmorang Wahib, Chip Barber, Chris Barr, Bestari Raden, Anne Casson, Eva Castaner, Stefanus Djuweng, Linda Ekstrom, Chip Fay, Cholis Yung, P. Florus, Hasjrul Junaid, Irfan, Kim Loraas, A. Mecer, Serge Marti, Mardi Minangsari, Abdon Nababan, H. Nazarius, Tri Nugroho, Harry Oktavian, Mateus Pilin, Putrawadi, Diah Raharjo,Rama Astraatmaja, Hubertus Samangun, Mina S. Serta, Max Simpoha, Martua Sirait, Rukka Sombolinggi, Suwito, Paulus Unjung, A. Valentinus, Eric Wakker, Joko Waluyo, Tony Whitten, Taufik Widjaya.

Also, many thanks to Longgena Ginting, Adriana Sri Adhiati, Marcus Colchester, Sandra Moniaga and Carmel Budiarjdo for their valuable editorial insights.

Note on terminology
In this report, we use the terms 'forest peoples', 'forest-dwellers' or 'forest communities' to denote peoples living in and around forests - including indigenous and non-indigenous peoples.
The term 'indigenous' is used to describe groups who self-identify as indigenous peoples or masyarakat adat.

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