Versi Bahasa


On the bilateral Agreement between the Government of Indonesia and the Government of the United Kingdom on co-operation to improve forest law enforcement and governance and to combat illegal logging and the international trade in illegally logged timber and wood products.

We, the undersigned Indonesian NGOs and the Indigenous Peoples' Alliance of the Archipelago, represent a number of non-governmental organisations working for forest conservation and organisations of indigenous peoples living in and around forests. We are extremely concerned for Indonesia's forests and place great importance on their preservation and equitable management.

We are seriously concerned about the levels of destruction and degradation of forests in Indonesia, caused by misguided forest management policies over many years, which have resulted in massive forest destruction and have negatively affected the livelihoods of millions of local people and indigenous communities living in forest areas.

The failure of forest governance and corrupt forest management have led to high levels of demand for timber, triggering widespread illegal and uncontrolled logging, the large-scale conversion of natural forest, the destroying ecological balances and manifest in various natural disasters throughout Indonesia, such as forest fires, floods and landslides. Furthermore, forestry operations have continued to cause violence, intimidation and human rights violations to forest communities.

Based on this situation, we would like to submit our position on the joint proposal between the Government of Indonesian and the UK on cooperation to improve forest law enforcement and governance and to combat illegal logging and the international trade in illegally logged timber and wood products.

We greatly value the efforts of both governments and welcome the joint proposal to fight illegal forestry activities in Indonesia. We think that, on a technical level, this bilateral agreement includes a wide coverage of issues around illegal logging and illegal trade. We do not believe that the matters considered in this MoU are a sufficient mechanism to bring about legal and fair forest management in Indonesia. We would therefore like both parties to strengthen their co-operation towards just and sustainable forest resource management in Indonesia, and we would like to contribute the following critical contributions to the proposed Memorandum of Understanding on aspects not yet covered by the MoU as follows:

  1. Over-capacity in the timber industry

    It is widely acknowledged that over-capacity in the timber industry is the major cause of the excessive of logging in Indonesia. A study sponsored by the UK government itself in 1999 concluded that this over-capacity was contributing to the logging of 56 million cubic metres per year (70% of total felled timber) from illegal or unregistered sources. Denying or closing our eyes to this reality will not bring about real improvements or get to the root of the problems of illegal logging and other illegal practices. We therefore consider that the bilateral agreement should include a statement to this effect, as follows:

    Recognising that there is substantial over-capacity in the wood processing industry, which is uncontrolled and driving over-exploitation,

    one form of co-operation that could be undertaken is to:

    Support the Government of Indonesia immediately in substantially reducing industry capacity through strict due diligence studies against ecological, social and economic standards developed through multi-stakeholder participation, for companies in serious financial difficulties and those with shortages of raw materials.

  2. Security of tenurial rights in Indigenous Peoples' forest areas

    Insecurity of tenure for indigenous peoples and traditional communities, and the government's limited forest supervision capacity have not recognised the true value of forest resources and turned forest areas into “free-for-all” exploitation zone. Indigenous peoples' and traditional communities' tenurial rights is the main incentive for local communities to protect and utilise forest resources in a more sustainable and equitable way. We think this MoU should include this issue as follows:

    Recognising the existence of indigenous people and their roles in forest preservation;

    Recognising that their livelihoods are under threat from forest degradation and practices that threaten forests, and forms of violence that often accompany forestry sector activities; and,

    Recognising that insecurity of tenurial rights of Indigenous Peoples over forest areas has caused widespread forest destruction due to forest exploitation, both legal and illegal.

    one form of co-operation that could be undertaken is to:

    Support the Indonesian government in taking immediate measures to recognise indigenous peoples' tenurial rights and to strengthen the protection of these rights as an incentive for communities to guarantee the protection of forest resources.

  3. Forest Governance

    It is time to rewrite the majority of forest policies of recent decades. To date, forest governance has been the main cause of corrupt and illegal practices and of weak law enforcement. The government cannot stop illegal forest activities effectively without the proactive engagement of the key stakeholders: local communities/indigenous peoples.

    The Indonesian government must also actively build alliances and networks with local governments and other stakeholders and engage directly with indigenous peoples and/or local communities to take effective action to stop illegal logging in the field.

    A formulation that could be included in the MoU is:

    Recognising the failure of an approach to forest management which is non-participatory and highly centralised; has promoted corrupt, collusive practices; and has seriously weakened law enforcement in Indonesia:

    A form of co-operation that could be undertaken is to:

    Support the Department of Forestry and other relevant agencies to develop greater accountability, transparency and civil society involvement in the process of law enforcement in the forestry sector.

    This MoU should also promote agreements with local governments and encourage the establishment of institutions in the regions to effect changes in forest management based on the status and sustainability of forest resources in those areas. A form of co-operation could be to:

    Support the Indonesian government in facilitating local governments to carry out a revaluation of forest resources and promote the institutionalisation of local initiatives to protect remaining forest resources.

  4. The role of UK government as investor and consumer

    Conversion of natural forests is still major problem for Indonesian forests, despite the declaration of a moratorium on further permits for conversion issued by the Government of Indonesia in 1998. The Indonesian government is caught between the need to protection forest area, and on the other hand, is being asked to accept further investment in the plantation sector such as oil palm that put forest area under threat. We therefore ask the UK government to support efforts to raise the environmental and social standards of UK-based Governmental agencies, companies and multinational companies investing in Indonesia. Therefores, we think this MoU should therefore include this issue in the following statement:

    Recognising the contribution of international investment to the pressure on natural forests in Indonesia, especially through investment in the industrial sectors of oil palm plantations and timber plantations and the pulp and paper industry;

    Therefore, one form of co-operation that could be undertaken is:

    The UK government will adopt high environmental and social standards for all government agencies, including export credit and guarantee facilities, and encourage the same for British businesses investing in Indonesia.

We very much value the efforts of the UK government to continue to raise environmental and social standards when buying timber and wood products from Indonesia. These standards should be raised further and cover not only the problem of the legality, but also the sustainability of forest resources.

We will continue to observe and monitor the development of this MoU, especially its implementation in Indonesia, and hope to be closely involved in it's elaboration.

We have asked that UK NGOs, civil society groups and other members of society to support our case.

17th April 2002

(Signatories + Organisation)

  1. Bestari Raden, Den Upa Rombilayuk, H. Nazarius (National Board of Indigenous Peoples Alliance of Archipelo-AMAN), and Abdon Nababan, AMAN-National Office, Jakarta,
  2. Longgena Ginting, WALHI National Office, Jakarta,
  3. Hapsoro, TELAPAK, Bogor,
  4. Rudy Lumuru, Sawit-Watch, Bogor,
  5. Boedhi Widjarjo, RACA Institute, Jakarta,
  6. Muayat Ali Muhshi, KPSHK, Bogor,
  7. Togu Manurung, Forest Watch Indonesia, Bogor,
  8. Restu Akhmaliadi, Indonesian Community Mapping Network, Bogor,
  9. Nordin, WALHI Central Kalimantan, Palangkaraya,
  10. Berry N Forqan, WALHI South Kalimantan, Banjarmasin,
  11. Purnomo, Peduli Indonesia, Mojokerto-East Java,
  12. Hasjrul Junaid, The SKEPHI Support Office Foundation, Amsterdam/Netherlands,
  13. Herman, Yayasan Pendidikan Rakyat, Palu, Central Sulawesi,
  14. Muchlis L. Usman, Yayasan Cinta Alam, Kendari, South-East Sulawesi, 
  15. Henri Nurcahyo, Lembaga Ekologi Budaya (ELBUD), Sidoarjo, East Java,
  16. Edmond Leonardo,WALHI Central Sulawesi Tengah, Palu,
  17. Siti maimunah , JATAM (Mining Advocacy Network), Jakarta,
  18. Fajar irawan, WALHI Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta,
  19. Lyndon B. Pangkali, FWI Papua-Region, Jayapura, Papua,
  20. Harry Oktavian, HAKIKI Foundation, Pekanbaru, Riau,
  21. Ery Syahminudin/ Biological Science Club (BScC) / Jakarta/
  22. Ronald M. Ferdaus, AruPA, Yogyakarta,
  23. Diah Y. Raharjo, The Ford Foundation, Jakarta, D.Raharjo@FORDFOUND.ORG
  24. Isal Wardhana, KPA Hijau, Samarinda, East Kalimantan,
  25. Rully Syumanda, KALIPTRA Sumatera, Pekanbaru, Riau,
  26. Ninil R M, Jaringan Pendidikan Lingkungan, Yogyakarta,
  27. Nurdin Efrisani, POKLAN, BANDUNG, West Java, poklan@bdg.centrin,
  28. Ade Fadli, Yayasan BUMI, Samarinda-East Kalimantan,
  29. Ikrar Idrus, Wallace Forest Ecological Protection (WFEP), Makassar, South Sulawesi,
  30. Irwansyah, Yayasan Cagar Alam, Bandar Lampung,
  31. Rudy Ranaq, Puti Jaji, Samarinda, East Kalimantan,
  32. Supriyanto, Lembaga Konservasi 21, Bandar Lampung,
  33. Apriadi Djamhurie Gani, Center for Social Forestry, Samarinda, East Kalimantan,
  34. Ir Alimuddin Paada, Yayasan Katopasa Indonesia, Palu, Central Sulawesi,
  35. Deni Winadi, Mitra Bentala, Bandar Lampung, Lampung,
  36. Avi Mahaningtyas, NADI, Jakarta,
  37. S. Indro Tjahjono, SKEPHI-Indonesia, Jakarta,
  38. Agus Setyarso, WWF Indonesia, Jakarta, /
  39. Rudy U. Redhani, Yayasan Cakrawala Hijau Indonesia (YCHI), Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan,
  40. Sarmiah, Yayasan Padi, Balikpapan, East Kalimantan,
  41. Juli Ermiansyah Putra, Yayasan Peduli Nanggroe Atjeh, Atjeh,
  42. Muslim,Yayasan Mitra Insani, Pekanbaru, Riau,

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